Influence of unreported HIV prophylaxis on the kinetics of post?blood donation HIV seroconversion

AbstractBackground

In 2020, of 110,000 blood donors screened for HIV exposure two individuals were identified who were viral RNA-positive but seronegative. One of the donors, borderline negative in a pooled screening test for HIV RNA, utilized antiretroviral drugs as post-exposure, pre-donation prophylaxis. The kinetics of subsequent HIV seropositivity in both donors are described.

Study Design and Methods

Both donors were recalled and interviewed, and blood was obtained at intervals for HIV antibodies and RNA testing.

Results

One donor used antiretroviral prophylaxis for 30?days due to a relationship with an HIV-positive partner. In follow-up samples, seroconversion was noted at 70?days, and viral RNA was detected at 105?days, after blood donation. In contrast, the other donor seroconverted in <25?days and the appearance and titer of HIV RNA was in accordance with the typical pre-seroconversion window.

Conclusion

The use of anti-viral prophylaxis by blood donors in the acute phase of HIV infection delays seroconversion. A 6-month deferral in blood donation after HIV prophylaxis, as currently recommended in Brazil, would have been sufficient in this case to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV. Ultimately, improvement in donor compliance with selection procedures for blood donation is needed to optimize blood safety.