Profile of antiphospholipid antibodies in HIV?infected and HIV?uninfected women with a history of thrombosis

AbstractIntroduction

Increased antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the association between aPL and the increased risk of thrombosis in HIV requires further clarification.

Methods

We reviewed the medical records of 215 consecutive women with a history of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications (158 HIV-uninfected and 57 HIV-infected) between July 2017 and March 2021. Participants (n = 215) without clinical criteria manifestations for antiphospholipid syndrome were included as matched controls. Testing for lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein1 (a?2GP1) IgM and IgG was performed.

Results

Thirty-two (10.1%) HIV-uninfected and 15 (13.2%) HIV-infected participants were positive at baseline for one of the five criteria aPL, with no statistically significant difference. The profile of the HIV-infected participants with thrombosis (n = 11) included LAC in 15.8%, aCL IgG in 3.5% and a?2GP1 IgG in 1.8%. In contrast, the HIV-infected controls (n = 4), included aCL IgM in 1.8% and a?2GP1 IgM in 5.3%. Only LAC was significantly associated with thrombosis (p < 0.003). On repeat testing, in a HIV-infected sub-population, 2/7 with thrombosis were positive, while 3/3 controls tested negative.

Conclusion

In contrast to earlier reports, the prevalence and expression of aPL in HIV-infected women with a history of thrombosis in the present study, in the era of antiretroviral therapy, were similar to HIV-uninfected women. Baseline LAC positivity was associated with a significantly increased risk for thrombosis in HIV. Future studies are recommended to explore additional coagulation abnormalities in HIV.